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Special Notes

Neuropsychiatry Disorders Stats

Coma

A coma is a state of prolonged unconsciousness that can be caused by a variety of problems like traumatic head injury, stroke, brain tumor, drug or alcohol intoxication, or even an underlying illness, such as diabetes or an infection. Maintaining alertness requires intact function of the cerebral hemispheres and preservation of arousal mechanisms in the reticular activating system (RAS-also known as the ascending arousal system)-an extensive network of nuclei and interconnecting fibers in the upper pons, midbrain, and posterior diencephalon. Therefore, the mechanism of impaired consciousness must involve both cerebral hemispheres and dysfunction of the RAS. Causes of coma

  • Traumatic injury to the neck such as car accidents or fall form height can cause coma
  • Bleeding in the layers of the brain may cause coma due to swelling and compression on the injured side of the brain
  • Diabetes: Increase in the blood sugar level can lead to cancer. Decrease in the blood sugar level can also leads to cancer.
  • Treatment for a coma depends on the cause. For example, if there is an infection that's affecting the brain, antibiotics may be needed. Glucose may be required in the event of a diabetic shock. Surgery may also be necessary to relieve the pressure on the brain due to swelling or to remove a tumour. Major research on coma: coma patients in vegetative state may have damaged fibre connections in brain, making them aware but unable to respond.

Kidney disease

Kidney disease means that the kidneys tend to be damaged along with are not able to filtration blood vessels similar to they should. When your kidneys are damaged, waste products and fluid can build up by the body processes, causing swelling in your ankles, vomiting, weakness, poor sleep, and shortness of breath.

Lack of blood flow to the kidney, direct damage to the kidney itself, Urine backed up in the kidney Are the main causes of acute kidney injury

Treatment for Kidney disease is there are several types of medicine that help people keep their blood pressure in a healthy range. Two kinds of medicines, ACEi (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) also help to protect the kidneys.

Tuberous Sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis is a rare, multi-system genetic disease that causes benign tumours to grow in many parts of the body the, signs and symptoms vary depending up on the location and severity of the tumour.

Prevalance of Tuberous sclerosis is reported to be less than 1 in 10,000 of population. Tuberous sclerosis is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD)

There is no cure for Tuberous Sclerosis. Severity of the disease can't be predicted, but with appropriate care, many people who have tuberous sclerosis lead full, productive lives

Advancements in research continue to bring new and improved therapeutic options. Some anti-seizure drugs can be effective in individuals with TSC.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Many people feel anxious, or nervous, when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or making an important decision. They can cause such distress that it interferes with a person's ability to lead a normal life. For people with anxiety disorders, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming, and can be crippling. There are several types of anxiety disorders including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

General symptoms include Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness, Problems sleeping, Cold or sweaty hands and/or feet, Shortness of breath, An inability to be still and calm. The pathophysiology for anxiety is not clearly understood, but some of the causes for anxiety may be abnormal responses to stress, multiple neurotransmitter involvement, neuro-hormone alterations, sleep disturbances, and chromosomal and genetic factors. They have identified changes in flow of cerebral blood in response to stress and increased metabolic activity suggesting hyperactive brain circuitry.

Self-treatment for anxiety: Learn to replace "negative self-talk" with "coping self-talk." Talk with a person who is supportive. To Meditate and exercise is best way for the treatment.

Counseling: psychological counseling is a standard method of treating anxiety. This can include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of therapies.

Medicines to treat anxiety: They are different medicines for treating anxiety such as antidepressants, benzodiazepines, tricyclics, and beta-blockers are used to control some of the physical and mental symptoms.

Depression

Pathophysiology

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. It is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry

Genetics, changes in hormone levels, certain medical conditions, stress, grief or difficult life circumstances can lead contribute to the onset of depression.

Disease Treatment

There are a number of treatment options available to patients diagnosed with depression.Psychotherapy, Medication, and Neuromodulation are the three major treatments. Additional treatment strategies, including exercise, nutrition, stress management and healthy sleep habits.

To diagnosis Depression various tests like Physical test, Lab tests, Psychological test, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) can be conducted. Medications and psychological counseling (psychotherapy) are very effective for most people with depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), Atypical antidepressants etc. antidepressant drugs can be used.

Social Anxiety Disorder

Disease defination: Social anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person has an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. Intense nervousness and self-consciousness arise from a fear of being closely watched, judged, and criticized by others. Social anxiety disorder also called social phobia. People with social anxiety disorder suffer from distorted thinking, including false beliefs about social situations and the negative opinions of others. Without treatment, social anxiety disorder can negatively interfere with the person's normal daily routine, including school, work, social activities and relationships etc.

Disease Symptoms: Intense anxiety in social situations, Avoidance of social situations and anxiety (including confusion), pounding heart, sweating, shaking, blushing, muscle tension, upset stomach, and diarrhea. Children with this disorder may express their anxiety by crying, clinging to a parent, or throwing a tantrum.

Disease Treatment

Physical Treatment: Challenge negative thoughts, learn to control your breath, Face your fears and Build better relationships and Change your lifestyle.

Medication: Beta blockers -Beta blockers are used for relieving performance anxiety. They work by blocking the flow of adrenaline that occurs when you’re anxious. While beta blockers don’t affect the emotional symptoms of anxiety, they can control physical symptoms such as shaking hands or voice, sweating, and rapid heartbeat. Antidepressants – Antidepressants can be helpful when social anxiety disorder is severe and debilitating. Three specific antidepressants—Paxil, Effexor, and Zoloft-have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of social phobia. Benzodiazepines – Benzodiazepines are fast-acting anti-anxiety medications. However, they are sedating and addictive, so they are typically prescribed only when other medications for social phobia have not worked.

Bone Cancer

Primary bone cancer, or cancer that starts in the bone, is quite rare. The most common type of primary bone cancer is osteosarcoma. This cancer usually affects teenagers and young adults.

Pain, swelling, fracture, Cancer in the bones of the spine can press on nerves, leading to numbness and tingling or even weakness.The earliest symptoms of bone cancer are pain and swelling in the area in which the tumor is located. The pain may come and go at first, then become more severe and steady later. The pain may get worse with movement, and there may be swelling in the soft tissue nearby.

Early detection and better treatment have improved survival for people with bone cancer. Research for bone cancer is on-going. Clinical trials can test the effectiveness of promising new treatments.Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. Surgical oncologists and orthopedic oncologists are doctors who specialize in treating bone cancer using surgery.

Vertebral Tumor

Pathophysiology

Tumor is an irreversible division of cells. A spinal tumor grows within spinal canal or within bones of spines. There are three common types of vertebral tumor; they are Intra-dural extramedullary tumors, and intra medullary tumor. Vertebral tumor is further classified as primary tumors, metastatic tumor.

Statistics

The cancer statistics contain data on mortality, prevalence, survival rates arranged according to year diagnosed, patient and sex. Survival rate are variable based they are based in pathology, rate of metastases and body physiology. vertebral tumor is found common in the age group of 20 to 39.

Treatment

There are many treatments of vertebral tumors they control the severe pain, preserve neurological function. Fix structural instability in the spine. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.

Research

Research on spinal tumor includes, technology for earlier diagnosis, avoiding late complications related to tumor removal and identify tumors.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a peculiar narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may arise in any of the areas of the spine. This narrowing causes a restrict to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit. Signs and symptoms consist of pain, numbness, paraesthesia, and loss of motor manipulate. The location of the stenosis determines which part of the body is affected. With this, the spinal canal is narrowed on the vertebral canal, that's a foramen among the vertebrae where the spinal wire (inside the cervical or thoracic spine) or nerve roots (in the lumbar spine) by pass thru. There are some types of spinal stenosis, with lumbar stenosis and cervical stenosis being the most common.

Treatment can be conventional or surgical. The approaches of conservative therapy include rest, physical exercises with support exercises for para spinal musculature, bracing, and use of optimal postural biomechanics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and antispasmodics. Surgical decompression is indicated in persons who experience debilitating pain, claudication, neurologic arrears, otherwise myelopathy. Concomitant stabilization is reticent for persons in whom segmental instability is assumed. A total of 595 patients with Spinal stenosis from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2007 were identified. The male to female ratio was 5.5:1. The mean age at injury was 39.0 years. The crude incidence rate was 39.7 (95% confidence interval: 36.6-43.0) per million population.

Tetanus

Tetanus affects skeletal muscle, a type of striated muscle used in voluntary movement. The other type of striated muscle, cardiac, or heart muscle, cannot be tetanized because of its intrinsic electrical properties. The tetanus toxin initially binds to peripheral nerve terminals. It is transported within the axon and across synaptic junctions until it reaches the central nervous system. There it becomes rapidly fixed to gangliosides at the presynaptic inhibitory motor nerve endings, and is taken up into the axon by endocytosis.

The effect of the toxin is to block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) across the synaptic cleft, which is required to check the nervous impulse. If nervous impulses cannot be checked by normal inhibitory mechanisms, the generalized muscular spasms characteristic of tetanus are produced. The toxin appears to act by selective cleavage of a protein component of synaptic vesicles, synaptobrevin II, and this prevents the release of neurotransmitters by the cells Passive immunization with human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) shortens the course of tetanus and may lessen its severity.

A dose of 500 U may be as effective as larger doses. Therapeutic TIG (3,000-6,000 units as 1 dose) has also been recommended for generalized tetanus. Other treatment measures include ventilatory support, high-calorie nutritional support, and pharmacologic agents that treat reflex muscle spasms, rigidity, tetanic seizures and infections. It ranks 59 among world tetanus cases.

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10 Min ago

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Chris Hemsworth

10 Min ago

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Chris Hemsworth

10 Min ago

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