Dementia describes a range of symptoms including mental ability loss. It is caused by damage in neuronal cells, with interference in neural cell to cell communication. Functional Proteomics is an advanced technology to study the neuronal bio mechanism, that allows to evaluate the metabolic changes within neuronal cells and brain tissues. It also leads to evaluating the functional metabolomics which helps in describing the concentrations of proteins within a time frame. The changes in brain energy metabolism cause the development and progression of several brain diseases. The biomarkers play a vital role in early detection of brain diseases, especially with dementia’s related disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunctions lead to pathophysiology of depressive & bipolar disorders. The Functional proteomics studies stats that there is an impairment in energy metabolism, where reductions of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglu), cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2) and of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was observed in cognitive decline and dementia, as shown by imaging technique with PET or MRI and by glucose uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose. The result will be accumulation of abnormal mitochondria in AD dystrophic, mitochondrial dysfunctions in cytochrome c oxidase, which activity is decreased in AD brains, reduced O2 uptake activity.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35.6 million people live with Dementia, which is supposed to be tripled by 2050, most of them would be Alzheimer’s type dementia and vascular dementia respectively. In most of the cases, the factors are genetic like ApoE allele E4, Coenzyme Q, previous stroke and head trauma, high homocysteine serum levels, as well as environmental.