Alzheimer was first biologically named by Alois Alzheimer, a german pathologist. Alzheimer Disease can be defined as a neurodegenerative disorder, as it is a neuronal disease that eventually turns out as a serious brain damage, during prolonged stages. The greatest drawback of the diseases is the mystery about the actual cause of the disease. The disease still remains anonymous as the actual cause of the disease is not known/ revealed till date. The disease is found to be caused mostly due to genetic disorders & damages of many principle genes & dysfunctions in their expressions. These causes are found to be the preliminary/primary causes. The Secondary/ Second line causes include head Injuries, Persistent depressions, Anxiety/hypertensions. It is also noticed that the disease is caused by the formation & development of plaques in the brain. These are well known to enhance /exemplify hypertension as they form obstacles to the blood flow and thus eventually causing/leading to death of the brain.
The disease can be diagnosed through certain standard diagnostic measures & primarily by observing certain symptoms. First line diagnostic measures & symptoms are related to aging. In order to make accurate & error free diagnosis, the examination of the brain is required. The preventive techniques/ habits include increased activity as a result of mental, physical exercise and thereby avoiding obesity problems could serve the purpose in avoiding easy occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease. Till date, neither a particular medication nor an exact preventive measure has been developed for management of Alzheimer’s disease. HEALTHY/ Protein rich intakes (Nutritional supplements) do not have any profound effect in prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Till date none had developed certain medication that could revert the progression of neuronal degeneration which ultimately leads to diseased condition. However, few drugs have been confirmed to revert the symptoms to a certain extent. Besides the health illness that contributes to the disease, pressures do promote to certain extent. These stress factors that enhance the illness are social, psychological, physical and economics factor. Physical strain in the form of healthy exercises is also known to increase their daily activities and boost the health outcomes for well-being.
Activation of P2 receptors by ATP stimulates the release of IL-33. As a result I1-6, IL-13 & monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 releases which in turns affect the microglial activity. Another study reveals that PAR-2 has been a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brain disorders. It has been observed fatty acid amide named N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) has neuroprotective effects. It was also useful against amyloid β-peptide-induced learning and memory impairment in mice. In short enzymatic regulation of PEA represents a novel therapeutic approach to treat neuroinflammation.
The preliminary causes for the disease include genetic manipulations/ Gene mutations. These gene mutations are found to be the most relevant reason for occurrence & prevalence of the disease. However this genetic damage as a cause of the disease contributes to only 50-70%. He remaining causes for the diseases include a kind of familial autosomal disorders. These are the disorders that are noticed in individuals above the age of 65 years. This familial disease is assosciated with damage of three genes leading t formations of Amyloid Precursor Proteins (APP) and presenilins 1 and 2. The cause/risk for occurrence of the disease is high in conditions which are prone to genetic & environmental mutations & damages.
The most famous & common diagnostic techniques for the diagnosisof the degenerative brain disorder are:
Advanced medical imaging’s using Computer Tomography (CT);
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and sometimes, Positron Emission Tomography (PET). CCSVI has been evaluated using ECD, UDC, UDS, TCCS, and even MRI. Intellectual functions will also be examined by memory testing which is the characterising feature of Alzheimer’s disease. Post mortem can also be done when the brain materials are availed for histopathological assessment. Many popular studies do apply the use of Echo-color-Doppler technique in measuring the degree of venous vascular degeneration of loss of endothelial capacity associated with the development of CCSVI.
Numerous people suffering with Alzheimer’s disease are increasing over time. This inefficiency in prevention of the disease has been greatly associated with the presence of ineffective drugs & failure of the researches to find out the actual causative behind Alzheimer’s disease. Phyto-pharmacological intervention for management of Alzheimer’s disease serves/behaves as a great saviour in the diagnosis, treatment & cure of the Alzheimer’s disease.